(1) This conceptual version of ornament can be regarded either as an extreme case of primitivism or, just as convincingly, as the ultimate in sophistication.(2) During the 800 years of the Dark Ages, Europe sunk back into primitivism , until the Renaissance broke the grip of superstition and the march of modern civilisation continued, after the long break.(3) We were trying to get away from the stereotypic imagery of romantic primitivism in African American art,’ DePillars said.(4) Plagued by tribal warfare, autocratic and murderous government, and an inefficient and corruption - ridden economy, it is trapped on the bloody borderland between primitivism and civilization.(5) To add to the novel's air of primitivism , the editors reproduce a page of the sloppy original manuscript.(6) Peter Gabriel's world sound (from his album Passion) intensifies the atmosphere of generic primitivism , although bowls and other props identify the setting as Africa.(7) This transposition of ethnological themes onto contemporary life is a form of domestic primitivism : the use of ethnographic narratives of social origins to explain elements of modern life.(8) The inclusion of early paintings and drawings, produced shortly after her graduation from Yale in 1959, provides a sense of her beginnings as a young artist in awe of Abstract Expressionism and the primitivism of Jean Dubuffet.(9) This, according to environmental primitivism , is the perfect, aboriginal state of nature.(10) Barthes's text is a melancholic testament to the horror and fascination Westerners have felt in reaction to the primitivism ushered in by their own civilization, its modernity and its explosive production of mimetic technologies.(11) He uses primitivism in his writings as a political weapon against the dominant white hierarchy, only to reject it simultaneously as an answer to the knotty problem of identity.(12) The literary primitivism of the 1920s, of which McKay was a part, largely expired with the decade, and his novels were little read in succeeding years.(13) Inspired by primitivism and American folk art, he painted idealized images of homespun America.(14) In well-crafted chapters, Blake describes the interaction between primitivism and the fauvists, cubists, Dadaists, surrealists, and, lastly, purists.(15) A later generation of Modern artists like Picasso, Miro and Klee were inspired by the primitivism and ‘savage’ aesthetic of African and Oceanic masks.(16) Rejecting interpretations that attribute Pentecostalism's success to its otherworldiness, Wacker argues that the genius of the early movement was its mixture of primitivism and pragmatism.